Scientific name: Arapaima gigas
Arapaima can reach lengths of more than 2.5 m (8.2 ft) and over 100 kg (220 lbs). The maximum-cited weight for the species is 200 kg (440 lbs). As one of the most sought after food fish species in South America, it is often captured primarily by handheld nets for export, by spearfishing for local consumption, and, consequently, large arapaima of more than 2 m are seldom found in the wild today. Aside from its immense size, perhaps the most peculiar trait of the arapaima is a fundamental dependence on surface air to breathe. In addition to gills, it has a modified and enlarged swim bladder, composed of lung-like tissue, which enables it to extract oxygen from the air. This is an adaptation to the often hypoxic conditions of the Amazon floodplains, but requires the arapaima to surface for air every 5 to 15 minutes.
The diet of the arapaima consists of fish, crustaceans, even small land animals that walk near the shore.